The world population is growing rapidly, but at the same time it is shrinking in certain areas. There is a huge difference in birth and fertility rates between different parts of the world, and migration further affects these regional differences. As the availability of medicine and vaccines improves, future population growth will be increasingly dependent on the path that future fertility will take. According to the UN report World Population Prospects (2022 Revision), global fertility is projected to fall from 2.3 children per woman in 2021 to 2.1 in 2050. Overall, significant gains in life expectancy have been achieved in recent years. Globally, life expectancy at birth is expected to rise from 72.8 years in 2019 to 77.2 years in 2050. While considerable progress has been made in closing the longevity differential between countries, large gaps remain. In 2021, life expectancy at birth in the least developed countries lags 7 years behind the global average, due largely to persistently high levels of child and maternal mortality, as well as violence, conflict and the continuing impact of the HIV epidemic.
The committee should focus on further alleviating the large differences in birth and death rate in different regions, taking into account especially the social causes and social effects of high birth rate, and the role of on the one hand migration and on the other hand production and distribution of food.